Contents

Effect of energy fluxes on materials

R.H.Khasanshin, L.S.Novikov, S.B.Korovin

Electrostatic discharges under separate, sequential, and combined radiation of -208 glass
with electrons and protons............................................................................................................................................................ 5

Features of initiation and evolution of electrostatic discharges on the surface of K-208 type optical glass
samples under separate, sequential and combined irradiation with 40 keV electrons and 20 keV protons in
vacuum have been studied. Particle flux densities were limited within 10
10-51012 cm2s1. Surfaces of
irradiated samples were studied by AFM methods. Radiation-induced changes in the glass surface morphology
are stipulated both radiation annealing and electrostatic discharges, surface modification is depending on the
type and flux densities of radiation. It was ascertained that appearance of microasperities on irradiated surface
promotes discharge development.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge, K-208 glass, vacuum, electron and proton radiations, AFM, spacecraft,
solar battery, protective coating.

 

V.V.Kovalenko

Structural and phase transformations in the carbon tool steel under treatment with a low-energy
high-current electron beam......................................................................................................................................................... 12

Effect of electron-beam impact on the structure and phase composition of the carbon tool steel has been
studied. Electron-beam treatment is found to be accompanied with high-velocity melt crystallization,
decreasing the lateral and longitudinal sizes of martensite crystals, formation of gradient structure, and
substructure transformations.

Keywords: electron beam, steel, gradient structure, scalar dislocation density, electron microscopy.

 

Plasmochemical methods of production and treatment of materials

V.I.Kalita, A.A.Radyuk, D.I.Komlev, A.Yu.Ivannikov, Yu.V.Blagoveshchensky, K.V.Grigorovich,
T.V.Shibaeva, N.V.Umnova, V.V.Molokanov, P.P.Umnov, Y.I.Melnik

Plasma WC-Co coatings from mechanically alloyed powder...................................................................................................... 22

By means of mechanical alloying and subsequent sintering of 82.61% W-6.39% -12% Co powder
mixture, cermet powders for plasma spraying of WC-12% Co coatings have been produced. According
to monocarbide content, phase composition of the powder obtained 87% WC-0.9%WC
1x-0.9% W2C-
4.4% W
6Co6C-0.9% W3Co3C-1.7% Co-4.4% C was similar to desired one, but carbon content in sprayed
coating (4.6%) was less than stoichiometric value 5.4%. Due to quenching from liquid state and lack of
carbon, sprayed coatings had a nonequilibrium phase composition 22% WC-26.4% WC1x-41.8% W2C-
5.4% W-2.1% Co-2.1%C. Heat treatment of the coatings at 900 in vacuum increases WC content and
decreases
the content of non-stoichiometric carbides. Low content of monocarbide (63.5%) and presence
of WCoC double carbides in the coatings after heat treatment are explained by lack of carbon and not high
temperature of annealing. Under plasma spraying of hypereutectic alloys, formation of amorphous-
nanostructured coatings is possible.

Keywords: mechanical alloying of powder, amorphous-nanostructured coatings, WC-Co, heat treatment,
loss of carbon.

 

Functional coatings and surface treatment

A.G.Rakoch, A.A.Gladkova, Yu.A.Pustov, Zayar Lin, Z.V.Habibullina

Multifunctionality of the current cathode component under MAO coating production................................................................ 30

It is shown that execution of microarc oxidation (MAO) process in anode-cathode modes leads to the
formation of through pores and dissolution of aluminum oxides and hydroxides in they. This mode of
treatment secures a high rate of formation of dense coatings with a good adhesion to the aluminum alloy.
Method for calculation of volume porosity and growth rate of the coatings produced by oxidation of the
metal substrate has been offered.

Keywords: microarc oxidation, 2024 aluminum alloy, cathodic component of AC, alkaline-silicate electrolyte, structure of coating.

 

Composite materials

D.N.Trushnikov

An investigation of the physical processes under electron-beam welding
by the use of parameters of secondary current in the plasma..................................................................................................... 36

It is experimentally demonstrated that the processes occurring under electron-beam welding of metals
can be studied by the measurements of the parameters of RF signal extracted by synchronous accumulation
method from the secondary current one induced in welding plasma. The spectrum of the secondary emission
signal under steel welding contains a periodic component with a frequency of 15-25 kHz. Probability of
occurrence of high-frequency disturbances increases with the energy density in the weld zone. Mechanisms
of high-frequency oscillations formation in the signal of the secondary current in the plasma are considered.

Keywords: electron-beam welding, secondary current in plasma, electron-beam focusing.

 

 

I.M.Poletika, M.V.Tetyutskaya, S.A.Makarov

Formation of bifunctional coatings with superdispersed structure
by the method of electron-beam surfacing in free air.................................................................................................................. 46

Bifunctional coatings with a high wear- and corrosion resistance have been produced by the method of
vacuum free electron-beam surfacing the powder mixtures of Cr
3C2, Cr, TiC. Increase of the wear resistance
is found to be connected with a dramatic structure refinement due to appearance of a great number of
crystallization centers in the form of TiC disperse precipitations.

Keywords: electron-beam surfacing, bifunctional coatings, structure, modification, hardness,
wear resistance, corrosion resistance.

 

N.A.Adamenko, S.M.Ryzhova

Properties of metal-containing polyarylates produced by explosive compaction......................................................................... 54

Effects of explosive pressing on the thermomechanical properties and electrical conduction of polymer
omposite materials (PCM) based on polyarylate DV filled from 50 to 90 vol.% powders of Al, Fe, Ni, Cu,
and W have been investigated. Explosion treatment increases the heat resistance of metal-filled PCM as
well as its electrical conduction, the value of which in the direction of propagation of the shock front on
40-60% higher than that in the transverse direction.

Keywords: polyarylate DV, polymer composites, metal fillers, explosive compaction, shock front,
thermal deformation, softening temperature, heat resistance, conductivity, microstructure.

 

A.G.Meylakh

Peculiarities of the structure formation and properties of composites on the base of Fe powders plated with nickel................. 61

Technological parameters of the process of chemical deposition of 0.5-2,0% u in the form of nanolayers
on the particles of Fe powders have been determined. Mechanism of the effect of Fe powder cladding with
Cu on the structure and properties of sintered materials is ascertained. It is found that Cu layer deposition
induced compaction, refining and alloying of Fe-based powder materials in the process of sintering ensure
increase their mechanical properties by 1.2-1.5 times.

Keywords: cladding of powders, nanolayers, activated sintering, structure, mechanical properties.

 

New methods of treatment and production of materials
with required properties

P.V.Fedotov, L.P.Loshmanov, A.V.Kostyukhina

Effect of a short-term heat treatment on the mechanical properties of E110 type Zr alloy.......................................................... 67

Effect of a temperature regime of the first stage of Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) in WWER design
reactor on mechanical properties and deformation behavior of E110 type Zr alloy has been studied. Tensile
tests of the ring specimens from fuel rod claddings heat treated by studied regimes were carried out. The
results obtained show the possibility of application of recently developed models of Zr alloys deformation
to calculation of the structure transformation induced changes of the alloy properties. Equation for dependence
of the alloy yielding stress on the peak temperature of the first stage of WWER design reactor LOCA is proposed.

Keywords: E110 Zr-base alloy, LOCA, temperature scenario, heat treatment, yield stress, reduction of area,
strain hardening.

 

S.V.Stefanovsky, B.S.Nikonov, M.B.Remizov, P.V.Kozlov, E.A.Belanova,
A.A.Shiryaev, Ya.V.Zubavichus

Characterization of aluminophosphate-based glass
and glass-crystalline nuclear waste forms and cesium speciation in their structure................................................................... 74

Aluminophosphate based glasses designed for immobilization of high level waste from reprocessing
of spent fuel from the water-graphite channel reactors were produced and characterized using X-ray
diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Cs environment in the structure of the materials was
studied by X-ray absorption fine structure. Melts quenched onto a metal plate formed glasses but their
annealing at 500C for 14 h resulted in partial crystallization of aluminum orthophosphates and complex
sodium-cesium-(magnesium)-aluminum orthophosphates with variable Cs
2O and MgO contents.
Maximum Cs
2O concentration in the complex orthophosphate reached 26.0 wt.% or 0.32 Cs formula
units (Na
0.39Cs0.32Mg0.26Al0.47P1.04Mo0.02O4.00). The first coordination shell of Cs is split into at least two
components corresponding to CsO distances of 3.120.05 Å and 3.440.05 Å. In some annealed samples
a second Cs coordination shell appears due to Cs incorporation in crystalline phases.

Keywords: aluminophosphate glass, cesium, nuclear waste, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray
absorption fine structure, X-ray diffraction.

 

M.S.Yurlova, E.G.Grigoryev, E.A.Olevsky, V.D.Demenyuk

Electro-discharge consolidation of tantalum anodes for electrolytic capacitors......................................................................... 82

The structure of Ta powders has been investigated as well as possibility of their application as anodes of
electrolytic capacitor. Critical parameters of electro-discharge consolidation (EDC) of the powders was
determined for make it possible to get a homogeneous volume distribution of pores. Effects of the
compacting pressure and current density on the porous structure and specific surface of Ta powder anodes
have been ascertained. Specific surface of EDC-anodes is found to be more then anodes made by
conventional technology on 18-230%.

Keywords: high voltage electric discharge consolidation, tantalum anodes, porous powder materials.