Effect of energy fluxes on materials
A.V. Yarovchuk, O.P. Maksimkin, L.G. Turubarova
Corrosion resistance of spent fuel assembly casing irradiated in BN-350 nuclear reactor......................................................... 5
Corrosion damages of the surfaces of casing of fuel assemblies of BN-350 fast nuclear reactor
after operation and long-term (~8 years) storage in water pool have been investigated with the
help of optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that corrosion pitting, cavities,
and intergranular cracks are occurred on the surface of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti and 16Cr-11Ni-3Mo steels
after a high-fluence irradiation with neutrons. Investigations of the irradiation-induced changes
in the structure of the steel surface show that enhanced corrosion of austenitic steels takes place
due to its phase instability and liability to martensite g→a′ transformation. Laboratory studies of
the effect of neutron irradiation on corrosion resistance of stainless steels were carried out after
irradiation in the WWR-K research reactor. It was ascertained that corrosion resistance of the
steels is depending on the fluence and temperature of irradiation. Neutron irradiation leads to
radiation aging of steels and promotes the martensite g→a′ transformation. Appearance of a′
martensite phase reduces the corrosion resistance of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel and stimulatesthe
intergranular corrosion channels development.
Keywords: corrosion, neutron irradiation, nuclear reactor, stainless steel.
Effect of space condition on materials
R.H. Khasanshin, L.S. Novikov
Radiation-stimulated changes in glass surface with technological damages............................................................................14
Covering glasses for solar arrays of geostationary satellites have been exposed to the hot
magnetosphere plasma. Separate and combined exposure of glasses by electrons and protons
being the basic components of magnetosphere plasma is accompanied by complicated cross-
coupling processes. To study the electrostatic discharges (ESD) and changes of the structure of
irradiated covering glasses, specimens were selected carefully. However, it remains unclear how
technological defects and possible mechanical damage on the covering glasses that appear when
assembling or transporting the solar arrays influence on development of ESD and changes in the
structure of glass surfaces exposed to radiation. The aim of this work is an experimental study of
the impact of technological defects on the surface of the K-208 type glass used as a protective
coating for solar cells to changes of the surface structure under electron and proton irradiation.
Specimens were irradiated in vacuum chamber with 20 keV protons and 40 keV electrons. The
surface of specimens before and after irradiation was studied with the help of atomic force
microscope. It is ascertained that if the glass is exposed by electrons, the small mechanical
damages like the scratches in the form of chains of microprotrusions on irradiated side are
sufficient to intensify of ESD. The proton irradiation leads to the structures formation on the
glass surface. These structural creations are comparable in size with the technological defects.
Keywords: electron and proton irradiation, K-208 glass, protective coating for solar array,
electrostatic discharges, surface structure.
Plasmochemical methods of production and treatment of materials
E.A. Bogoslov, M.P. Danilaev, Yu.E. Polsky, I.R. Vakhitov, A.I. Gumarov, I.V. Yanilkin, L.R. Tagirov
Morphology of polymer film coatings produced in a barrier gas discharge at atmospheric pressure....................................... 23
The technique of polymer films deposition from the barrier gas discharge plasma on top of dielectric
substrates is developed. The film precursor is a monomer material highly dispersed in a transport
plasma gas. The plasma formation of the continuous polymer film can be divided into two stages.
The first stage is deposition of liquid monomer droplets with subsequent polymerization on the
dielectric barrier surface resulting in growth of discontinuous film. It is found that the ratio of the
droplets height to their lateral size is almost constant and for polystyrene it is equal to ~0,01. The
second stage is expansion of the droplets into islands and their coalescence into a continuous polymer
film on the dielectric barrier surface. The polymer coating thickness and amount of the cross bonds
essentially depend on the current density and concentration of the monomer in the transport discharge
gas. The continuous polymer film, which is not contaminated with the monomer destruction products,
can be obtained in the current density range (7 – 25 mA/cm2). Experiments with several monomers,
like methylmethacrylate, styrene and acrylonitrile, have shown that the growth rate is maximal for
monomers with oxygen-free molecules. At the same time, higher growth rate provides low cross-bond
coatings, whereas to get high density of the cross-linked bonds one has to utilize low deposition rates.
The minimal thickness, at which continuity of the film is achieved, increases when the monomer
concentration in the plasma rises. In general, the coating thickness depends linearly with the discharge
current density, the particular figures depend on the type and concentration of the monomer. The
technological parameters are established and given for the three above mentioned monomers.
Keywords: polymer films, barrier discharge plasma.
A.S. Tyuftyaev, V.B. Mordynsky, M.V. Ilichev, P.A. Konovalov
An experimental study of the device for a surface plasma treatment of materials.....................................................................29
The heat flux distribution on the sample surface along and across the flat plasma jet with different
widths of the flow transducer was measured using the calorimetry methods. Depending on the shape
and geometric dimensions of the elements of devices for plasma surface hardening the heating
efficiency was calculated. The main reasons for operational damage, for example, of railway wheels
from high carbon steel like 60G is wear of a ridge and defects of contact-fatigue origins. In the
course of frictional interaction of a wheel with a rail in the conditions of swing friction with slipping
elements several types of wear are at work at the same time. It is known that when swinging on rails
the railway wheels are exposed to contact and shock loads, friction between rails and brakes in the
presence of the third body between their surfaces (wear particles, water, sand, lubricant, etc.). In
general, the zone of interaction between a rail and a wheel is characterized by complex tension
conditions; many questions remain open that predetermine the need for further research in this area.
Substantial increase of life cycle of this friction pair is provided by the plasma strengthening surface
treatment of a working part of a wheel flange with a wide plasma strip. As a result of such heating at
the subsequent fast cooling in the surface layer hardened structures are formed varying depending
on the depth of the surface layer. The technology differs from other modes of surface heat treatment
in relative simplicity and low cost of the equipment, and a possibility of the process automatization.
During processing the device is used which includes a plasmatron with the an expanding channel of
an output electrode, and the stream converter which is functionally the hydraulic transitional site in
which the cylindrical stream of plasma from the generator anode will be transformed to a flat stream
on a product surface.
Keywords: friction pair, plasma, plasma jet, flow transducer, plasma hardening, the wheel steel.
Functional coatings and surface treatment
V.M. Beresnev, O.V. Sobol, A.D. Pogrebnjak, S.V. Litovchenko, S.A. Klimenko, V.A. Stolbovoy,
P.À. Srebniuk, À.S. Manokhin, M.G. Kovaleva, V.Yu. Novikov, À.À. Meilekhov,
U.S. Nyemchenko, À.Å. Barmin, P.V. Turbin
Structure and mechanical properties of TiAlSiY vacuum-arc coatings deposited in nitrogen atmosphere................................ 34
Effect of a negative bias potential applied to the substrate on elemental composition, structure, and
mechanical properties of vacuum-arc TiAlSiY nitride coatings have been investigated by different
methods. It is ascertained that applying a high (up to –500 V) bias voltage leads to a selective
sputtering of target as well as significant microdeformation of coating, small-sized crystallites
growth, and theirs preferred orientation along  direction. In this case, the coating deposited
has a low hardness H=6.95 GPa and propencity to intense wear under scratch and tribological tests.
Crystallites with stoichiometric composition of ~140 nm in size and  preferred orientation
perpendicularly to the surface of growth are formed at the bias potential about –200 V, and
superhard (H=49.5 GPa) and wear-resistant coatings were grown under the such conditions.
Mechanisms of formation of the structure of multi-element coatings are discussed. It is shown
that formation of an amorphous phase and nanocrystal  texture takes place at a high bias
potential due to the process of radiation-stimulated selective spraying of target. Formation of 10 nm
sized microstrained crystallites which caused by the weakening of interatomic bonds is observed
in the coating under such deposition conditions, and it leads to the coating hardness decrease and
fast destruction during tribological testing. Substantial bias voltage dependence of deposited
coating properties is established in our investigations.
Keywords: vacuum-arc deposition, wear, friction coefficient, surface, structural engineering, solid solution.
G. Abadias, A.Yu. Daniliuk, I.A. Solodukhin, V.V. Uglov, S.V. Zlotsky
Thermal stability of TiZrAlN and TiZrSiN films formed by reactive magnetron sputtering.......................................................44
Quaternary TiZrAlN and TiZrSiN films with Ti:Zr ratio of ~1:1 and different Al (or Si) content
were deposited by simultaneous reactive magnetron sputtering of Ti, Zr and Al (or Si) targets under
Ar+N2 plasma discharges. The elemental composition was determined by WDS and RBS methods,
phase composition has been studied by X-ray diffraction. It was found that the c-(Ti,Zr,Al)N solid
solution of substitution type is the basis of (Ti,Zr)1–xAlxN (0.06≤x≤0.65) system. For (Ti,Zr)1–xSixN
system (0.13≤x≤0.41), a dual-phase structure is typical comprised by a nanocomposite on the base
of c-(Ti,Zr)N solid solution and grain-boundary amorphous a-SiNy phase. Appearance of the second
a-SiNy phase promotes an amorphization of the films. Vacuum annealing of the films investigated at
the temperatures up to 1000°C does not lead to decomposition of the solid solutions which compound
the films. Both rather high deposition temperature (600°C) and stoichiometric nitrogen content
can be the reasons for thermal stability of the films. Annealing-induced Al depletion of c-(Ti,Zr,Al)N
solid solution grains is observed in (Ti,Zr)1–xAlxN films caused by the growth of AlN based
amorphous phase at the grain boundaries.
Keywords: transition metal nitride, magnetron sputtering, TiZrAlN, TiZrSiN, phase formation,
S.V. Konovalov, V.E. Kormyshev, V.E. Gromov, Yu.F. Ivanov, E.V. Kapralov
Gradient structure in Hardox 450 steel with built-up layer....................................................................................................... 56
Phase composition and defect substructure of the modified layer built-up on Hardox 450 steel with
the wire containing C, Mn, Cr, Nb, W, Fe have been investigated. The high-strength surface layer
having not less than 6 mm thickness and the average microhardness value of 10.2 GPa is formed as
a result of surfacing. With greater distance from the surface of the material into the depth of the
built-up layer the microhardness of the material decreases up to 6 GPa. By methods of transmission
electron microscopy it has been shown that Hardox 450 steel is α-phase based polycrystalline
aggregate. In the grain volume of α-phase the lamellar structure is predominantly observed. In
specific cases α-phase grains with subgrain structure are revealed. The particles of iron carbide
Fe3C are revealed in the volume of plates, at the boundaries of plates and subgrains. It has been
established that the layer built-up on steel is a multiphase material with the main constituent of
α-phase having the martensitic structure. The presence of retained austenite locating in the form
of extended interlayers along the boundaries of martensite crystals has been revealed in the
built-up layer. The formation of the built-up layer is accompanied by the creation of the second
phase inclusions in the form of interlayers, globules and faceted crystals. The inclusions have the
sizes from 0.2 to 1 μm. In most cases they are niobium carbide NbC. In specific cases the reflections
belonging to carbides of chromium and tungsten are revealed on microelectron diffraction patterns.
The structure of “built-up layer – substrate” transition zone is close to the initial steel one according
to the morphological signs. It has been shown that the martensitic structure with chaotically
distributed dislocations and dislocation balls is revealed in the transition zone. The second phase
particles (iron carbide) are revealed at the boundaries of martensite crystals. The carbide phase
particles formed by carbide forming elements of the built-up layer (chromium carbide particles
Cr3C2 and M23C6((Fe, Cr)23C6) have been revealed. The carried out investigations showed that
the structure of the transition layer was similar to that of the initial steel volume according to the
morphological signs. The differences consist in the hardening of the transition layer by the
particles of carbide phases formed by the elements of surfacing wire.
Keywords: steel Hardox 450, welding, defect substructure, phase composition, microhardness
L.K. Bolotova, I.E. Kalashnikov, L.I. Kobeleva, P.A. Bykov, I.V. Katin,
A.G. Kolmakov, N.B. Podymova
Structure and properties of the B83 babbit alloy based composite materials produced by extrusion....................................... 63
Extruded bars of hardfacing B83 babbit alloy reinforced by silicon carbide particles with an average
size of 40 μm and modified with shungite rock (MSR) have been manufactured. Specimens of the
powder mixture of babbit alloy and fillers produced by mechanical alloying were cold pressed,
heated to the temperature of 310±10°C, exposed at this temperature for 30 min, and then extruded
on a mechanical press at 320±5 MPa. The structure, physical, mechanical and tribological properties
of produced composite material (CM) have been studied. An uniform distribution of reinforcing
fillers and changes of the morphology of intermetallic SnSb and Cu3Sn phases with size reduced by
1.5-1.8 times were observed in the specimens produced by extrusion. The values of hardness,
density, and elastic modulus measured by laser photoacoustic method were not worse than these for
the cast B83 babbit alloy. Introduction of SiC and MSR particles into the babbit composition lead to
its strengthening and wear resistance increase by ~20% as compared with the cast material. The best
wear resistance, by 1.7 times greater than for the cast alloy, was obtained in SiC+MSR polyreinforced
CM. This material is characterized by the least variation of the friction coefficients in a whole range
of tribological loading studied and by the most stable process of friction.
Keywords: alloy babbit B83, reinforcing fillers, extrusion, composite rods, structure, optoacoustic
laser method, wear resistance
New methods of treatment and production of materials with required properties
Electromagnetic technology for synthesis of oxygen-free ceramic high temperature
materials: Hardware implementation.........................................................................................................................................71
Development and design of the electromagnetic technology for synthesis of oxygen-free ceramic
materials as applied to carbides and borides based on direct high frequency inductive heating of
charge of oxides and disperse carbon are exhibited. Equipment for implementation of the technology
in static, continuous, and discrete-continuous operating modes is elaborated, manufactured and tested
under industrial conditions. Operation analysis and calculation of the metal-dielectric reactor to
be transparent for electromagnetic power flow from a coil are conducted. Technology for
manufacturing of this element is elaborated. The technology proposed was examined under industrial
conditions as applied to synthesis of boron carbide, carbides of silicon, zirconium, lanthanum,
borides of zirconium and titanium. Advantages of the electromagnetic technology are formulated
as compared to the existing scientific and industrial level.
Keywords: electromagnetic technology, high frequency, coil, skin layer, refractory materials
synthesis, carbide, boride, autocrucible, carbon monooxide, metal-dielectric reactor.
V.M. Orlov, T.Yu. Prokhorova
Heat treatment of tantalum oxide compound reduction products............................................................................................... 86
Effect of heat treatment of the products of magnesium-thermic reduction of tantalum oxide
compounds (reaction mixture (RM)) on the specific surface and porosity of tantalum powders as
well as characteristics of produced capacitor anodes has been investigated. Relationship between
the powder surface area and the temperature of RM heat treatment was found to have a linear
character. The powder surface can be calculated as Sht =–aTht +b, where Sht is a specific surface
area of the powder obtained after RM heat treatment, Òht is the treatment temperature, a and b are
calculated coefficients: a = 0.00027S0 + 0.0079, b = 0.417S0 +12.7, S0 is the surface area of powder
obtained from untreated RM. Owing to mesoporous structure of magnesiumreduced powders,
the surface mostly diminishes due to disappearance of the pores with the diameter of less than
10 nm. At the same time, the average size of pores is observed to be growth. Heat treatment of
RM did not bring about increasing of oxygen content in the resulting powders. Its quantity did
not exceed that in natural oxide layer (3 mg/m2). Heat treatment of the reaction mixture opens
up the opportunity to obtain capacitor powders with a high specific charge omitting the
Keywords: tantalum, mesoporous powder, heat treatment.